Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2016
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation
Basis of presentation — The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Hillenbrand and its subsidiaries.  They also include two minor subsidiaries where the Company’s ownership percentage is less than 100%.  The portion of the business that is not owned by the Company is presented as noncontrolling interests within equity in the balance sheets.  Income attributable to the noncontrolling interests is separately reported within the statements of income.  All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. 
Use of estimates
Use of estimates — We prepared the consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”).  GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.  Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Foreign currency translation
Foreign currency translation — The financial statements of our foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars using period-end exchange rates for assets and liabilities and average exchange rates for operating results.  Unrealized translation gains and losses are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss in shareholders’ equity.  When a transaction is denominated in a currency other than the subsidiary’s functional currency, we recognize a transaction gain or loss in “other income (expense), net” when the transaction is settled.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include short-term investments with original maturities of three months or less.  The carrying amounts reported in the balance sheet for cash and cash equivalents are valued at cost, which approximates their fair value.
Trade receivables
Trade receivables are recorded at the invoiced amount and generally do not bear interest, unless they become past due.  The allowance for doubtful accounts is a best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses and collection risk in the existing accounts receivable portfolio.  The allowance for cash discounts and sales returns reserve are based upon historical experience and trends.  Account balances are charged against the allowance when we believe it is probable the receivable will not be recovered.   We generally hold trade accounts receivable until they are collected.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market.  Inventory costs are determined by the last-in, first-out (“LIFO”) method for approximately 32% and 28% of inventories at September 30, 2016 and 2015.  Costs of remaining inventories have been determined principally by the first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) and average cost methods.
Property, plant, and equipment
Property, plant, and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using principally the straight-line method based on estimated useful lives of three to 50 years for buildings and improvements and three to 25 years for machinery and equipment. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Upon disposal or retirement, the cost and accumulated depreciation of assets are eliminated. Any gain or loss is reflected in the Company’s income from operations. We review these assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be recognized when estimated future undiscounted cash flows relating to the asset are less than its carrying amount. The impairment loss is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its fair value.
Intangible assets
Intangible assets are stated at the lower of cost or fair value.  With the exception of certain trade names, intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over periods ranging from three to 21 years, representing the period over which we expect to receive future economic benefits from these assets.  We assess the carrying value of trade names annually, or more often if events or changes in circumstances indicate there may be impairment.
Goodwill is not amortized, but is subject to annual impairment tests.  Goodwill has been assigned to reporting units.  We assess the carrying value of goodwill annually, or more often if events or changes in circumstances indicate there may be impairment.  Impairment testing is performed at a reporting unit level.
Investments — Our investment portfolio consists of investments in private equity limited partnerships.  The carrying value of the portfolio was $7.6 and $8.3 at September 30, 2016 and 2015 and is included in other current assets and other assets on the balance sheets.  We use the equity method of accounting for substantially all private equity limited partnerships, with earnings or losses reported in “other income (expense), net” in the income statements.  Certain of these investments require commitments by us to potentially provide additional funding of up to $1.0.  The timing of funding is uncertain, but is expected to occur over the next three to five years.  We regularly evaluate all investments for possible impairment.
Environmental liabilities
Environmental liabilities — Expenditures that relate to an existing condition caused by past operations which do not contribute to current or future revenue generation are expensed.  A reserve is established when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated.  These reserves are determined without consideration of possible loss recoveries.  Based on consultations with an environmental engineer, the range of liability is estimated based on current interpretations of environmental laws and regulations.  A determination is made of the specific measures that are believed to be required to remediate the site, the estimated total cost to carry out the remediation plan, and the periods in which we will make payments toward the remediation plan.  We do not make an estimate of inflation for environmental matters because the number of sites is small, the magnitude of costs to execute remediation plans is not significant, and the estimated time frames to remediate sites are not believed to be lengthy.
Specific costs included in environmental expense and reserves include site assessment, remediation plan development, clean-up costs, post-remediation expenditures, monitoring, fines, penalties, and legal fees.  The amount reserved represents the expected undiscounted future cash outflows associated with such plans and actions and is not significant to Hillenbrand.
Self-insurance — We are self-funded up to certain limits for product and general liability, workers compensation, and auto liability insurance programs, as well as certain employee health benefits including medical, drug, and dental.  These policies have deductibles and self-funded retentions up to $0.5 per occurrence, depending upon the type of coverage and policy period.  Our policy is to estimate reserves based upon a number of factors, including known claims, estimated incurred but not reported claims, and outside actuarial analysis.  The outside actuarial analysis is based on historical information along with certain assumptions about future events.  These reserves are classified as other current and other long-term liabilities within the balance sheets.
Treasury stock
Treasury stock consists of our common shares that have been issued but subsequently reacquired.  We account for treasury stock purchases under the cost method.  When these shares are reissued, we use an average-cost method to determine cost.  Proceeds in excess of cost are credited to additional paid-in capital.
Preferred stock
Preferred stock — The Company has authorized 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock (no par value), of which no shares were issued at September 30, 2016 and 2015.
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
Accumulated other comprehensive loss included all changes in Hillenbrand shareholders’ equity during a period except those that resulted from investments by or distributions to our shareholders.
Revenue recognition
Revenue recognition — Net revenue includes gross revenue less sales discounts, customer rebates, sales incentives, and product returns, all of which require us to make estimates for the portion of these allowances that have yet to be credited or paid to our customers.  We estimate these allowances based upon historical rates and projections of customer purchases toward contractual rebate thresholds.
A portion of Hillenbrand’s revenue is derived from long-term manufacturing contracts.  The majority of this revenue is recognized based on the percentage-of-completion method.  Under this method, revenue is recognized based upon the costs incurred to date as compared to the total estimated project costs.  Approximately 24%, 25%, and 25% of Hillenbrand’s revenue was attributable to these long-term manufacturing contracts for 2016, 2015, and 2014.
Accounting for these contracts involves management judgment in estimating total contract revenue and cost.  Contract revenues are largely determined by negotiated contract prices and quantities, modified by our assumptions regarding contract options, change orders, and incentive and award provisions associated with technical performance clauses.  Contract costs are incurred over longer periods of time and, accordingly, the estimation of these costs requires management judgment.  Cost estimates are largely based on negotiated or estimated purchase contract terms, historical performance trends, and other economic projections.  Significant factors that influence these estimates include inflationary trends, technical and schedule risk, internal and subcontractor performance trends, business volume assumptions, asset utilization, and anticipated labor agreements.  Revenue and cost estimates are regularly monitored and revised based on changes in circumstances.  Anticipated losses on long-term contracts are recognized immediately when such losses become evident.  We maintain financial controls over the customer qualification, contract pricing, and estimation processes to reduce the risk of contract losses.
Revenue for components, most replacement parts, and service is recognized when title and risk of loss passes to the customer.
Cost of goods sold
Cost of goods sold consists primarily of purchased material costs, fixed manufacturing expense, variable direct labor, and overhead costs.  It also includes costs associated with the distribution and delivery of products.
Research and development costs
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred as a component of operating expenses and were $12.6, $12.7, and $14.4 for 2016, 2015, and 2014.
Warranty costs
Warranty costs — We provide for the estimated warranty cost of a product at the time revenue is recognized.  Warranty expense is accrued based upon historical information and may also include specific provisions for known conditions.  Warranty obligations are affected by actual product performance and by material usage and service costs incurred in making product corrections.  Our warranty provision takes into account the best estimate of amounts necessary to settle future and existing claims on products sold.  The Process Equipment Group generally offers a one to two-year warranty on a majority of its products.  It engages in extensive product quality programs and processes in an effort to minimize warranty obligations, including active monitoring and evaluation of the quality of component suppliers.
Income taxes
Income taxes — We establish deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements.  Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statements and the tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse.  The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.  The majority of the cash at our foreign subsidiaries represents earnings considered to be permanently reinvested for which deferred taxes have not been provided as we do not intend, nor do we foresee a need, to repatriate these funds.
We have a variety of deferred income tax assets in numerous tax jurisdictions.  The recoverability of these deferred income tax assets is assessed periodically and valuation allowances are recognized if it is determined that it is more likely than not that the benefits will not be realized.  When performing this assessment, we consider future taxable income, the reversal of existing temporary differences, and tax planning strategies.  We account for accrued interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense.
Derivative financial instruments
Derivative financial instruments — The Company has hedging programs in place to manage its currency exposures.  The objectives of our hedging programs are to mitigate exposures in gross margin and non-functional-currency-denominated assets and liabilities.   Under these programs, we use derivative financial instruments to manage the economic impact of fluctuations in currency exchange rates.  These include foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which generally have terms from one to 24 months.   

The Company has interest rate swaps in place to manage or hedge the risks associated with our indebtedness and interest payments. Our objectives in using interest rate swaps are to add stability to interest expense and to manage our exposure to interest rate movements.

We require that hedging derivative instruments be highly effective in reducing the risk exposure that they are designated to hedge. As a result, there was no significant ineffectiveness from any of our derivative activities during the period. We formally designate any instrument that meets these hedging criteria as a hedge.

The aggregate notional amount of all derivative instruments was $208.3 and $136.7 at September 30, 2016 and 2015.

We measure all derivative instruments at fair value and report them on our balance sheets as assets or liabilities.  Derivative instruments designated as hedges for customer orders or intercompany purchases have an offsetting tax-adjusted amount in accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss).  Derivative instruments designated to hedge foreign currency exposures within our balance sheet have an offsetting amount recorded in “Other income (expense), net”.  The carrying value of all of these contracts at fair value resulted in assets of $1.4 and $1.1 (included in Other current assets) and liabilities of $3.3 and $5.8 (included in Other current liabilities) at September 30, 2016 and 2015.  See Note 13 for additional information on the fair value of our derivative instruments.
Changes in the fair value of derivatives are accounted for depending on the intended use of the derivative, designation of the hedging relationship, and whether or not the criteria to apply hedge accounting has been satisfied.  Gains and losses on derivative instruments reported in accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss) are subsequently included in earnings in the periods in which earnings are affected by the hedged item.  The amounts recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and subsequently through earnings were not significant from 2014 through 2016.  Net gains and losses on all derivative instruments were substantially offset by foreign exchange effects on the hedged items.
The Company does not enter into derivative contracts for purposes of speculation.
Business acquisitions and related business acquisition and integration costs
Business acquisitions and related business acquisition and integration costs — Assets and liabilities associated with business acquisitions are recorded at fair value, using the acquisition method of accounting.  We allocate the purchase price of acquisitions based upon the fair value of each component, which may be derived from observable or unobservable inputs and assumptions.  We may utilize third-party valuation specialists to assist us in this allocation.  Initial purchase price allocations are preliminary and subject to revision within the measurement period, generally not to exceed one year from the date of acquisition.
Business acquisition and integration costs are expensed as incurred, and are reported as a component of cost of goods sold, operating expenses, interest expense, and “other income (expense), net,” depending on the nature of the cost.  We define these costs to include finder’s fees, advisory, legal, accounting, valuation, and other professional or consulting fees, as well as travel associated with the evaluation and effort to acquire specific businesses.  Business acquisition and integration costs also include costs associated with acquisition tax planning, retention bonuses, and related integration costs.  These costs exclude the ongoing expenses of our business development department.
Restructuring costs
Restructuring costs may occur when we take action to exit or significantly curtail a part of our operations or change the deployment of assets or personnel.  A restructuring charge can consist of an impairment or accelerated depreciation of effected assets, severance costs associated with reductions to the workforce, costs to terminate an operating lease or contract, and charges for legal obligations for which no future benefit will be derived.
Recently adopted accounting standards
Recently adopted accounting standards — In April 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-08, Reporting Discontinued Operations and Disclosures of Disposals of Components of an Entity, which includes amendments that change the requirements for reporting discontinued operations and requires additional disclosures about discontinued operations.  Under ASU 2014-8, only disposals representing a strategic shift in operations should be presented as discontinued operations.  ASU 2014-8 became effective and was adopted for our fiscal year beginning October 1, 2015.  The adoption of this standard did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation: Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies several aspects of the accounting for employee share-based payment transactions, including the accounting for income taxes, forfeitures, and statutory tax withholding requirements, as well as classification in the statement of cash flows. The Company elected to early adopt this standard for our fiscal year 2016. The Company applied this standard prospectively and thus prior periods have not been adjusted.
The impact of the adoption resulted in the following:
The Company recorded a tax benefit of $2.4 million within the provision for income taxes for the year ended September 30, 2016, related to the excess tax benefit on stock options, time-based stock awards, and performance-based stock awards. Prior to adoption, this amount would have been recorded as a reduction of additional paid-in capital. This change could create volatility in the Company’s effective tax rate going forward. We elected to present the cumulative excess tax benefit of $2.4 entirely in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016 because the impact of recording the benefit to each respective quarter was not significant.
The Company elected not to change our policy on accounting for forfeitures and continued to estimate the total number of awards for which the requisite service period will not be rendered.
The Company no longer reclassifies the excess tax benefit from operating activities to financing activities in the statement of cash flows.
The Company excluded the excess tax benefits from the assumed proceeds available to repurchase shares in the computation of our diluted earnings per share for the year ended September 30, 2016. This increased our diluted weighted average common shares outstanding by approximately 20,000 shares for the year ended September 30, 2016.
Recently issued accounting standards
Recently issued accounting standards — In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2014-09 requires entities to recognize revenue in a way that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The FASB has also issued several updates to ASU 2014-09. The new standard supersedes U.S. GAAP guidance on revenue recognition and requires the use of more estimates and judgments than the present standards. It also requires significant disclosures sufficient to enable users to understand the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers, including qualitative and quantitative disclosures about contracts with customers, significant judgments and changes in judgments, and assets recognized from the costs to obtain or fulfill a contract. ASU 2014-09 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning October 1, 2018, including interim periods within that reporting period, and allows for either full retrospective adoption or modified retrospective adoption, with early adoption permitted on October 1, 2017. We have not yet selected a transition method, and we are currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2014-09 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-12, Accounting for Share-Based Payments When the Terms of an Award Provide That a Performance Target Could Be Achieved after the Requisite Service Period.  ASU 2014-12 states that a performance target in a share-based payment that affects vesting and that could be achieved after the requisite service period should be accounted for as a performance condition.  ASU 2014-12 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning October 1, 2016, with early adoption permitted.  We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2014-12 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern. ASU 2014-15 provides guidance about management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern or to provide related footnote disclosures. ASU 2014-15 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning October 1, 2016, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2014-15 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In January 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-01, Income Statement—Extraordinary and Unusual Items. ASU 2015-01 eliminates from GAAP the concept of extraordinary items. ASU 2015-01 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning October 1, 2016, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2015-01 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-02, Consolidation: Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis. The new standard amends the consolidation guidance in ASC 810 and significantly changes the consolidation analysis required under current generally accepted accounting principles. ASU 2015-02 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning October 1, 2016, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2015-02 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-03, Interest - Imputation of Interest. ASU 2015-03 simplifies the presentation of debt issuance costs. The amendments in this ASU require that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-15, Interest - Imputation of Interest: Presentation and Subsequent Measurement of Debt Issuance Costs Associated with Line-of-Credit Arrangements. This standard permits an entity to defer and present debt issuance costs related to line-of-credit arrangements as an asset and to subsequently amortize the deferred debt issuance costs ratably over the term of the line-of-credit arrangement. These new standards do not affect the recognition and measurement of debt issuance costs. ASU 2015-03 and ASU 2015-15 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning October 1, 2016, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2015-03 and ASU 2015-15 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-05, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software. ASU 2015-05 helps entities evaluate the accounting for fees paid by a customer in a cloud computing arrangement by providing guidance as to whether an arrangement includes the sale or license of software. ASU 2015-05 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning October 1, 2016, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2015-05 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Inventory (Topic 330). Under current FASB standards, an entity is required to measure inventory at the lower of cost or market. Market could be replacement cost, net realizable value, or net realizable value less an approximately normal profit margin. ASU 2015-11 requires an entity to measure inventory within the scope of this update at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Subsequent measurement is unchanged for inventory measured using last-in, first-out (LIFO) or the retail inventory method. ASU 2015-11 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning October 1, 2017, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2015-11 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-16, Business Combinations. ASU 2015-16 simplifies the accounting for adjustments made to provisional amounts. The amendments in ASU 2015-16 require that the acquirer recognize adjustments to provisional amounts that are identified during the measurement period in the reporting period in which the adjustment amount is determined. The acquirer is also required to record, in the same period’s financial statements, the effect on earnings of changes in depreciation, amortization, or other income effects, if any, as a result of the change to the provisional amounts, calculated as if the accounting had been completed at the acquisition date.  In addition, an entity is required to present separately on the face of the income statement or disclose in the notes to the financial statements the portion of the amount recorded in current-period earnings by line item that would have been recorded in previous reporting periods if the adjustment to the provisional amounts had been recognized as of the acquisition date. ASU 2015-16 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2016, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2015-16 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, Income Taxes. ASU 2015-17 requires that deferred income tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position in order to simplify the presentation of deferred income taxes. ASU 2015-17 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2017, with early adoption permitted. We expect that ASU 2015-17 will have a financial statement presentation impact only, as all deferred income tax assets and liabilities will be classified as noncurrent on the consolidated balance sheet.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases. ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to recognize a right of use asset and related lease liability for leases that have lease terms of more than twelve months.  For income statement purposes, the FASB retained a dual model, requiring leases to be classified as either operating or finance, with the classifications based on criteria that are similar to those applied under the current lease guidance, without the explicit bright lines.  ASU 2016-02 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-02 will have on our consolidated financial statements.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-06, Derivatives and Hedging: Contingent Put and Call Options in Debt Instruments. ASU 2016-06 clarifies the requirements for assessing whether contingent call (put) options that can accelerate the payment of principal on debt instruments are clearly and closely related to their debt hosts. An entity performing the assessment under the amendment is required to assess the embedded call (put) options solely in accordance with the four-step decision sequence. ASU 2016-06 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2017, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-06 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.